Pregnancy stages

Pregnancy is a wonderful time of change. As the embryo grows and develops into a baby, your body also undergoes many changes.  Adjusting to the growing baby, you may probably have mood swings, nausea, stress, fatigue and backaches. In any case, don’t despair – all these things are normal and will go away as your pregnancy progresses. Especially as all women are absolutely different, you may not feel the same that another woman suffers.


Each pregnancy is divided into three periods – trimesters. Each of thirds has its own features. The first trimester covers week one to the end of week 12, the second trimester covers week 13 to the end of week 26, and the third trimester covers week 27 to the end of the pregnancy. Let’s see what changes take place on each phase.

First trimester  (0-12 weeks)

First trimester doesn’t give women a chance to prepare psychologically for pregnancy as the uterus is low in the pelvis and there is no visible bump. In most cases woman feels tiredness, the breasts may feel tingly, uncomfortable or full. Morning sickness also called nausea may appear at any time of the day. It is caused by increasing levels of pregnancy hormones in the circulation. However it doesn’t mean that you’ll have nausea while being pregnant. It depends mainly on individual organism. To exclude or at least reduce morning sickness, try to eat small, regular meals. Your taste may also change and you’ll notice stop enjoying certain things such as coffee or spicy foods.
First trimester is the time when the baby’s brain and nervous system are developing. So during this period you’ll be probably recommended folic acid supplements as they have been shown to reduce the chance of a baby being born with problems known as neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.
The main you should remember is that first trimester turns out to be the most important pregnancy period when your child starts developing. That’s why you should try avoiding taking any medications that could interfere with the baby’s development. Heavy consumption of alcohol should be avoided too.
While the mother undergoes changes, first trimester for her fetus it is a period of rapid growth and development. By the fifth week baby’s heart starts to beet.  This is followed by the formation of the gut, the buds of arms and legs and the beginnings of eyes and ears. By six weeks child’s length is approximately 20mm.  By 12 weeks the baby is approximately 100mm long, most of his organs have already formed.

Second trimester (13-28 weeks)

Good mood and energetic feeling return to woman as her nausea lessens. As the abdomen and breasts grow, stretch marks may appear. It is quite common to develop a vertical, pigmented line on the skin of the abdomen below the belly button, which fades later. Most women feel heartburn. As the baby increases in size and strength, mother may feel its movements.  The first sensation of child’s movements shows up by 20 weeks. In the second trimester mother can find out who is she waiting for as the baby’s sex organs develop. As baby’s kidneys start working, he passes small amounts of urine that is added to the amniotic fluid which is continually cleaned and replaced. About 20 weeks the baby can hear sounds, so it is time for parents to contact with their child more closely.

Third trimester (29-40 weeks)

Third trimester is the most physically tiring for the mother because of increasing size of the baby and uterus. It is sometimes very difficult to fall asleep as it’s hard to find comfortable position. From around 36 weeks, the baby’s head starts to drop down into the pelvis. Dropping down of the baby may lead to pressure on the bladder what increases the feeling to pass urine.
The baby is still growing during the third trimester. Hair, fingernails and teeth are growing, the eyes open and close. The baby’s lungs mature throughout the third trimester. Your baby makes breathing movements. Fat stores are laid down in preparation for birth.

Healthy PregnancyAre you pregnant? Congratulations! Becoming a mother is one of the most exciting times in a woman’s life

Pregnancy – what is this?
Pregnancy is a term used in medicine to describe when a woman has a growing fetus inside of her. Pregnancy lasts for 40 weeks, sometimes it can be just more than 9 months. It begins from the start of your last menstruation and continues with childbirth. During that period you must take care of yourself, as it has never been more important.
You’ll probably get advice from your doctor, friends and family, even from complete strangers what should you do and what not. But your and your child’s health depends only on you, so try to learn as much useful information as you can to keep you and your baby as healthy as possible.

What are pregnancy signs and symptoms?
There are a lot of signs which may indicate you’re pregnant. They are fatigue headaches, nausea or vomiting, morning sickness, mood swings, frequent urination. But primary sign of pregnancy is missing one or more consecutive menstrual periods. Menstrual irregularities in women may cause missed periods. So women who experienced such problems must visit a doctor to determine whether they are waiting for a child or simple have some health disorder.

How to know if you’re pregnant?
The best way to determine if you are pregnant is using a pregnancy test. In the 1970s the  National Institute of Child Health researches found that high levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadatropin (HCG) in the urine were associated with pregnancy. Since then home pregnancy test is commercially available over-the-counter and considered highly accurate. 
In any case, whether you suspect being pregnant or your pregnancy test shows positive results you should see your health care specialist.

Why is prenatal care important?
Woman should get preconception care both before pregnancy and before her baby is born. Prenatal care while pregnancy is very important for the mother and her developing child as it includes health care, along with education and consulting about how to handle different aspects of pregnancy. With your doctor you may discuss various issues, for example what your nutrition must consist of, what should be avoided, whether to act physically and what to expect during the birth process in whole.

High-risk pregnancy and how to promote a healthy pregnancy?
Unfortunately, almost all pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk to both mother and baby. That’s why it’s of vital importance to have good nutrition and a healthy lifestyle before pregnancy. To prevent any complications during pregnancy good prenatal care and medical treatment must be got. 
But many factors causing high-risk pregnancy can be present before a woman becomes pregnant. They are being overweight or underweight, pre-existing health conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, having had problems in previous pregnancies. Remember, the problem can occur even if you were previously completely healthy.
See the following rules that may help reducing the risk of certain problems during pregnancy:
- While being pregnant you can help yourself and your baby by getting regular physical activity. Avoid drinking alcohol, smoking or drug use as these are factors that can seriously damage your fetus. Before taking any medications consult with your prenatal care doctor as certain medications can be harmful too.
- It is recommended for women of childbearing age to get at least 400 micrograms of folic acid every day whether through food or dietary or supplements. It should be taken at least for 3 months before getting pregnant and at least the first 3 months of pregnancy.
- Before becoming pregnant it is important to get all the necessary vaccinations. So, thinking about getting pregnant you should make sure you have been properly vaccinated for certain diseases that could harm your developing fetus.

Women health - Pregnancy: Do's and Dont'sIt seems like everybody around you have become experts. Each one from your best friends to absolute strangers gives advice what is best for you and your baby. Women are just bombarded with Do’s and Don’ts – do this, don’t do that. To be sure how to behave while being pregnant, read the following.

Pregnancy Do’s. First off all, every day you should get all essential vitamins and minerals. Increase your iron intake. Consult with your care specialist whether to take some prenatal multivitamins.
Folic acid is one of the most important elements to take during pregnancy. Getting 0,4 mg of folic acid daily will prevent baby birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. To get enough folate during pregnancy some women take multivitamins. If you prefer eating foods containing this vitamin, you can find it in lentils, asparagus, spinach, black beans, peanuts, enriched breads and pasta, broccoli and fortified breakfast cereals.
Concentrate on a healthy diet. Eat whole-grains, vegetables and fruits. Non-fat or low-fat yogurt, milk, and broccoli are foods reach in calcium that is so important for your baby’s strong bones and teeth. Avoid eating fatty foods to gain a healthy, not excessive amount of weight.
Your sleep time must be seven – nine hours every night. Many women feel uncomfortable during sleeping. Aches, pains, anxiety and bathroom runs keep pregnant women awake at night. To reduce such symptoms, don’t eat before going to bed but at least three hours before. Left side is the most comfortable for pregnant woman to sleep. If your belly is big enough, put a pillow under it.
Keep on walking and easy exercises during the day, as regular, low-impact exercise is good for you and your baby. Don’t take any medicines until your doctor prescribes you as they can harm the baby.

Pregnancy Dont’s. There are a lot of things that should be avoided. First of all, give up smoking and drinking alcohol if you do. Smoking during pregnancy passes nicotine and cancer-causing drugs to your baby. Smoke also keeps your baby from getting needed nourishment and raises the risk of stillbirth and premature birth (a small baby born too early). Drinking alcohol is not less harmful for your baby as smoking.
Illegal drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, barbiturates, and LSD are very dangerous. That’s why tell your doctor if you are using these drugs and stop taking them as quick as possible.
It is forbidden to have optional x-rays during pregnancy as this form of radiation may cause cancer for your unborn baby. In most cases x-rays can wait until after the baby is born.
High temperature can be very harmful for your baby, so try to avoid going to sauna and taking hot baths. Don’t use any scented sprays and bubble bath as these scented feminine hygiene products can easily irritate your vaginal area increasing the risk of a urinary tract infection.
Toxoplasmosis is a disease carried by cats. This disorder can easily harm the fetus. If the mum during pregnancy gets that infection, the organism can cross the placenta and actually cause developmental problems with the baby, and infection of the baby. Don’t feed raw meat to your cat, because if the cat has eaten uncooked meat and has got the parasites that way, the life cycle of the parasite continues and if you get contact with the faces, and inadvertently just brush your hand across your mouth, you may ingest a parasite that way. As you see, it’s too dangerous to contact with cats during pregnancy. If you have a cat it’s better to give the animal your friends or relatives on your pregnancy period to avoid toxoplasmosis.
Following the abovementioned tips will help to prevent many troubles and make your pregnancy pleasant for you.

Obesity as a chronic diseaseOne of the main components of people well-being is food. All the necessarily nutrients and calories needed for healthy bodies and energy are provided by foods. However, people’s lifestyle turns out to be very tense, there is often a lack of time. The work day is too busy to find a moment for healthy eating. So in the evenings we may overeat. As a result, the extra food turns to fat and is stored in our bodies.
Majority of industrially developed countries faced with one of the main healthcare problems – obesity. Obesity is an epidemic in the United States. It is the main cause of nearly 300 thousands deaths in a year here. Nearly half of Americans suffer from being overweight — including at least 1 in 5 children. As physical activity is optional and food is abundant, obesity grows rapidly in our society. Annual expenses related to obesity exceed 100 milliards of dollars.

What causes obesity?

There are lots of reasons causing obesity, which vary by individual. Many factors such as your age, sex, and genes, psychological makeup, and environmental factors may contribute to the imbalance between calorie intake and consumption. 
Researches have shown that obesity tends to run in families due to lifestyle habits, shared diet and also it can be caused by genes. But it doesn’t mean at all that you will be obese because of having obese relatives.
There are a lot of things that have nothing to do with hunger. They are depression, boredom, hopelessness, anger. Due to all these negative factors people often overeat, that always turn out to gaining weight. This doesn’t mean that overweight and obese people have more emotional problems than other people. The problem is that their eating habits influence on their eating habits feelings that causes overeating. Perceived social pressures related to being more physically desirable, especially in young girls, may lead to using obesity as a mechanism of defense. If such unusual cases take place, psychological intervention may be helpful. 
People’s lifestyle is one of the most important environmental factors. We live in a society where our activity level and eating habits are partly learned from the people around us. Obesity is caused mainly by sedentary habits and overeating. 
With the same calorie intake women are more likely to gain weight than men. You ask – why? Nature created men to have more muscle than women. Even at rest men use more calories because muscle burns more calories than other types of tissue. As a result eating the same food, you’ll be gaining weight while your boy doesn’t notice any changes in his body. 
Aging people tend to lose muscle and gain fat. Their metabolism also slows somewhat. These factors lower their calorie requirements. 
Another life period when you are probably at risk for gaining weight is pregnancy. Unfortunately, this weight gain may contribute to obesity. Women tend to weigh an average of 4-6 pounds more after a pregnancy than they did before the pregnancy.

How to treat obesity?

 For majority of people suffering from being overweight or obese, obesity treatment it comparatively simple to follow – try to eat less and exercise more and you will lose weight. It is as simple as that. There are no magic pills, diets that sound too good to be true are just that.
 All medications that can promote weight loss work only in conjunction with eating less and exercising more. So, medical treatment of obesity, in most cases, focuses on changing people’s lifestyle. Two main rules of loosing weight healthy are simple to remember and follow: eat less and increase your activity level!


To prevent obesity and its health risks you must change the habits of a lifetime. Eating less over the long term means that you will learn to think about your eating habits and patterns.
Ask yourself – what makes you overeat? Is it late afternoon energy lag? May be it is late night sweet tooth? Or you just don’t have time or energy to cook, that’s why eat in snack-bars and fast foods. Having some insight into your overeating habits helps you to avoid your problem situations and reach your weight goal.
Don’t forget – increasing your activity level is largely a matter of changing your attitude. You don’t have to be a marathon runner. Look for those ways to increase your activity level that you enjoy.


Sugar. Don’t forget that sugar is a source of calories, not nutrients. Therefore consuming too much sugar may lead to weight gain and tooth decay. Contrary to what many people think, there is no evidence linking high-sugar diets to hyperactivity or diabetes. However, high fructose corn syrup, found in most processed foods, is linked with obesity that puts you at risk for developing diabetes and other conditions.
About half of sugar people consume is added into soft drinks, fruit drinks, puddings, ice cream and baked goods. Research from Tufts University nutrition scientists shows that soda and sweet drinks provide more daily calories than any other food. Consuming so much sweet drinks leads to weight gain. Obesity rates are higher for people consuming sweet drinks. Also watch for hidden sugar in the foods you eat. You may find sugar appearing as corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, fruit juice concentrate, malt syrup, among other forms, on package labels.

Salt. It is well-known that high blood pressure can be caused by high sodium intake. Following a healthy diet you can reduce the risk for high blood pressure by consuming less salt or sodium. Unfortunately, we often don’t pay any attention how much sodium we use while cooking, as a result most Americans consume much more sodium than they really need. From previous articles you’ve already known that recommended amount is less than 2,300 mg per day and just one teaspoon of salt provides that amount. So one good way to reduce your sodium intake is eating fewer prepared foods. Once you retrain your palate to enjoy foods with lower sodium content, you’ll find it easier to toe this line. And certainly you’ll feel healthier as well.

Alcohol. Memorize that food group doesn’t include alcohol. However, if you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Consuming alcohol is very harmful. Alcohol offers neither nutritional value nor any other benefits. On the contrary, excess alcohol use may lead to serious health damages, causing distorted vision, judgment, hearing and coordination; emotional changes; bad breath; and hangovers. Consuming alcohol within long-term period may include liver and stomach damage, vitamin deficiencies, impotence, heart and central nervous system damage and memory loss. Abuse can lead to alcohol poisoning, coma and death.
Consuming alcohol during pregnancy is contra-indicated at all because alcohol can harm the developing fetus and infant. Even light and moderate drinking can hurt. Influence of alcohol is so harmful that more than 40,000 babies are born each year with alcohol-related damage, according to the March of Dimes.

Reference Daily Intakes for women aged 19-50

Nutrient – Amount
Vitamin D – 5 mcg*
Vitamin E – 15 mg
Vitamin C – 75 mg
Vitamin A – 700 micrograms
Vitamin B6 – 1.3 mg
Vitamin B12 – 2.4 mcg
Calcium – 1000 mg
Iron – 18 mg
Magnesium – 320 mg
Zinc – 8 mg
Copper – 900 mcg
Thiamin – 1.1 mg
Riboflavin – 1.1 mg
Niacin – 14 mg
Phosphorus – 700 mg
Iodine – 150 mcg
Folic acid – 400 mcg
Biotin – 30 mcg
Potassium – 4.7 grams
Sodium – 1.5 grams

Reference Daily Intakes for women aged 51-70
Nutrient – Amount
Vitamin D – 10 mcg*
Vitamin E – 15 mg
Vitamin A – 700 micrograms
Vitamin C – 75 mg
Vitamin B6 – 1.5 mg
Vitamin B12 – 2.4 mcg**
Magnesium – 320 mg
Zinc – 8 mg
Copper – 900 mcg
Calcium – 1200 mg
Iron – 8 mg
Sodium – 1.3 grams
Thiamin – 1.1 mg
Riboflavin – 1.1 mg
Niacin – 14 mg
Folic acid – 400 mcg
Phosphorus – 700 mg
Iodine – 150 mcg
Biotin – 30 mcg
Potassium – 4.7 grams

*In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.
**Due to age-related modest decreases in the ability to use the B12 from natural sources, fortified foods or supplements can help to meet the recommendation.


Are dietary supplements important in a healthy diet? There is no scientific affirmation that dietary supplements or large amounts of vitamins and minerals can prevent or treat health problems or slow the aging process. Of course, there are a lot of people who due to their busy and intensive lifestyle do not consume a balanced diet or a variety of foods. In this case daily multivitamin tablets can be beneficial. People who follow well-balanced diet with a variety of foods provide their bodies with all the necessary nutrients.
Nowadays there are plenty of dietary supplements available. Ideally, it would be clear what types of supplements improve health and it would be easy to identify safe and effective products. But unfortunately the information about dietary supplements is often confusing or inexact.

What are dietary supplements?

The main mission of dietary supplement (also known as food supplement) is providing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids that you miss or don’t consume in required quantity in your diet.
In the United States, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 gives the following definition of the dietary supplement – it is a product that is intended to supplement the diet and bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: vitamins,  minerals,  herbs or other botanical (excluding tobacco), amino acids, a dietary substance for use by people to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any of the abovementioned. The main requirement for dietary supplement is intending for ingestion in pills, capsules, tablets, powder or liquid form. In any case it should not be represented for use as a conventional food or as the sole item of a meal or diet; labeled as a “dietary supplement”.
Today there are majority of dietary or nutritional supplements. As for vitamin and mineral supplements they are types of dietary ones. Such supplements include micronutrients intended to help smoothly body functioning.
Dietary supplements with a medicinal purpose are herbal supplements. Their main object is supporting a specific area of the body’s health, such as the liver, bones or skin.

What are the health benefits of vitamin and mineral supplements?

Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients that in a unique way help the body to function properly. For example, vitamin A supports vision and bone growth. Vitamin E improves and strengthens the immune system. Deficiency of vitamins and minerals may lead to body’s inability to protect and heal itself.
Due to the Harvard School of Public Health, “consuming several vitamins above the minimum daily requirement helps preventing heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and other chromic diseases”. Nevertheless, taking vitamins does not make up for an unhealthy diet, and vitamins wouldn’t replace the loss of all the necessary nutrients from fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains. However, you may provide your organism with the multivitamin and mineral supplement as addition safeguard.

Vitamin Supplements

Micronutrients that the body needed for growth, digestion and nerve function; metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy; and cellular repair are entirely provided by vitamin supplements.  Various food sources provide different vitamins, and healthy diet should offer you all of them. A vitamin supplement can help you make up for those underrepresented in your diet.
Vitamin A supports the immune system, bone growth, vision, cell division. It is contained in liver (including cod liver oil), dairy, meat. Vitamin B6 supports protein and red blood cell metabolism. Great sources of Vitamin B6 are grains, legumes, liver, bananas.  Vitamin C is an antioxidant, supports connective tissue, nervous tissue, mitochondria. Products rich in vitamin C are citrus fruits, green veggies. Vitamin D supports normal levels of calcium and phosphorus. It is contained in cod liver oil, fish, fortified dairy products, eggs, sun exposure. Vitamin E is an antioxidant which supports the immune system and is contained in vegetables oils, nuts, grains.
With the help of minerals the body creates new cells and enzymes, distributes fluids, controls nerve impulses, brings oxygen and takes away carbon dioxide from cells. Mineral supplements provide micronutrients found extensively in bone and teeth.
Such mineral as calcium supports bone, teeth, blood, body fluid, muscle and blood vessel contraction, hormone and enzyme secretion. Products rich in calcium are dairy, green veggies, sesame seeds, almonds. Oysters, nuts, legumes and grains are included in copper, which supports normal growth, bone growth, sugar metabolism, and proper enzyme function. Iron is a metal that supports the transfer of oxygen and cell growth. It is contained in meat, fish, leafy green vegetables, molasses. Magnesium supports muscles, nerve, heart, immune system, bones, blood pressure, energy metabolism, blood sugar levels, and protein synthesis. Nuts, seeds, grains, vegetables are rich in magnesium. Oysters, meat and seafood are contained in zinc, which supports enzyme production, wound healing, sense of taste and smell and normal growth.

Herbal Supplements

Herbal Supplements are known as the oldest humanity’s health care tools. Also known as botanicals, they are the basis of many modern medicines. In ancient times primitive civilizations relied on herbs for healing, as do contemporary cultures throughout the world. The situation is similar nowadays. It has been estimated that 80% of the world’s population keep to traditional therapies, a major part of which are derived from plants. 
Herbal supplements differ from vitamin and mineral supplements due to their medicinal value. Herbs are contained in fresh or dried products that are extracts (or tinctures), tablets, capsules, powders, teas, roots or leaves. They are a group of chemicals or a single chemical that has been isolated from a botanical. Herbal supplements used for maintaining or improving health in a specific area of the body or organ systems.

What should you know about sodium?Sodium is a component of salt or sodium chloride. Sodium has some positive sides: it regulates fluid balance in your body and helps proper functioning of your muscles and nerves. That’s why some sodium is necessary to good health. But as with other aspects of the American diet, we tend to overdo a good thing. Day norm of sodium for adults is 500 to 1000 mgs; 1,100 to 3,300 mgs is still considered safe. This is equal to the amount of sodium in approximately one-half to one and a half teaspoons of table salt. Nevertheless, the average American consumes 2,500 to 5,000 mgs of sodium per day – up to ten times the amount needed.
Remember: your health is in your hands. You may decrease the risk of high blood pressure, and consequently the likelihood of heart disease, kidney disease and stroke by reducing your sodium intake. The best way of reducing sodium in your diet is cooking from scratch, substituting spices for salt in recipes. Try to buy vegetables fresh, plain frozen, or canned “with no salt added”.
 Eat more fresh poultry, fish, and lean meats rather than canned or processed ones. Try to exclude salt from your ration; cook rice, pasta, and hot cereals without salt. Cut back on foods which usually have added salt such as instant or flavored rice, pasta, and cereal mixes. Rinse canned foods, such as tuna, to remove some sodium.
Try to cut back on food with high sodium. They are frozen dinners, pizza, packaged mixes, canned soups or broths, and salad dressings.  When cooking, taste your food before automatically adding salt.

Why is iron important for women?Iron is one of the most important elements that everyone – especially children, teenage girls and women of childbearing age needs. Women under age 50 are recommended 18 mg daily iron intake, for women over 50 – 8 mg. To improve bone mineral density in healthy women during menopausal period, iron intake of 20 mg should be combined with 800-1200 mg calcium per day.

Why is iron important for women? Each month during menstruation women lose on average 15 to 20 milligrams of iron, that’s why they need more of this mineral to recover its loss. If you suffer from headaches and fatigue you should increase iron intake as these are symptoms of iron deficiency anemia.                                                                  
After menopause, body iron generally increases. Women older than 50 years of age must be carefully examined by a physician, because iron deficiency may indicate blood loss from another source.
Liver, kidneys, red meat, poultry, eggs, peas, legumes, dried fruits and dark, green leafy vegetables are great sources of iron. For example, a cup of cooked spinach contains 6.4 mg; three ounces of cooked chicken liver contains 7.2 mg of iron. During pregnancy you’ll be probably recommended iron supplements by your doctor. In that case iron supplements intake should start at 30 mg per day.
Otherwise, there are some warnings concerning the use of iron supplements. Firstly, don’t take iron supplements or vitamins with iron unless your health care professional recommends it. During postmenopausal iron intake must be carefully controlled as too much iron could lead to heart disease.

Why is calcium important?Calcium is the most important element which helps building bone mass. All youth need calcium during their early years as it’s a key period for bones. You should carefully watch for calcium intake. Law calcium intake may lead to the development of osteoporosis, a serious disorder decreasing bone density and as a result leading to weak bones and future fractures. Men are less subject to developing osteoporosis than women. Because of that fact women should include calcium in their diets during adolescence and early adulthood. Osteoporosis occurs in women until they are 30 to 35 years of age. That’s why at 25 to 50 years of age women must eat about 1,000 mg of calcium each day. Menopausal women should increase calcium intake to 1,200 mg daily if they are taking estrogen replacement therapy. About 1,500 mg per day should have women older than 65 years.

What are goods sources of calcium?

Excellent calcium sources are, first of all, low-fat dairy products. Other good sources of calcium can be salmon, tofu (soybean curd), certain vegetables (broccoli), legumes (peas and beans), calcium-enriched grain products, lime-processed tortillas, seeds and nuts. If you can’t regularly consume adequate food sources of calcium, you may replace food sources on calcium supplements to reach the recommended amount. Day norm of calcium must be minimum 1,200 mg per day.              


How to determine how much fat is OK to eat daily?

If you decided to follow the diet, you should thoroughly watch what you eat and control the amount of fat.  The amount of saturated and common fat depends on the foods you eat. No more than 30 percent of the whole calories should be the total fat in your daily diet. As for saturated fat, its total intake should be no more than 10 percent of those 30 percent of calories. If you want to know how to calculate healthy amount of fat and the way how to adhere to this norm, you should consult with the nutrition professional. He will help you to determine the exact amount of fat you should consume coming from your current energy and nutrition needs. 

Good and bad fats – what is the difference?

One of the basics for good health is fats. It is difficult to over-estimate the utility of fats.  Have you ever fall to thinking how tastes food without any dietary fat? It is exceedingly bland. Without fat your skin and hair would become dry and brittle. And what is the main, as such important vitamins like A, D, E and K are fat-soluble, you couldn’t absorb them.
There are three basic types of fats:
1. Monounsaturated fats (MUFAs),
2. Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs)
3. Saturated fats (SATFAs), consisting of hydrogenated and trans fats.
As for monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats they are good for you, saturated fats on the contrary are damaging.
The main question is how to distinguish between good and bad fats? You should know that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are just like oil flowing through your arteries. Saturated fats are like sludge, sticking to the arteries. The difference between saturated and unsaturated fat is that saturated is solid and unsaturated is liquid at room temperature.
To run smoothly your body needs oil. To hum at peak efficiency it needs essential fats which you can find in the nearest foods store.